I have installed GNU/Linux on many a computers in ~20 years (some automated, most individually). In the University, I used to be woken past midnight by someone knocking at the door — who reinstalled Windows — and now they can’t boot because
grub was overwritten. I’d rub the eyes, pickup the bunch latest Fedora CDs and go rescue the
beast machine. Linux installation, customization and grub-recovery was my specialization (no, the course didn’t have credit for that).
Technologies (libre & otherwise) have improved since then. Instead of MBR, there’s GPT (no, not that one). Instead of BIOS, there’s UEFI. Dual booting Windows with GNU/Linux has become mostly painless. Then there’s Secure Boot. Libre software works with that too. You may still run into issues; I ran into one recently and if someone is in the same position I hope this helps:
A friend of mine got an Ideapad 3 Gaming laptop (which was preinstalled with Windows 11) and we tried to install Fedora 37 on it (of course, remotely; thanks to screensharing and cameras on mobile phones). The bootable USB pendrive was not being listed in boot options (
F12), so we fiddled with TPM & Secure Boot settings in EFI settings (
F2). No luck, and troubleshooting eventually concluded that the USB pendrive was faulty. Tried with another one, and this time it was detected, happily installed Fedora 37 (under 15 mins, because instead of spinning Hard Disks, there’s SSD). Fedora boots & works fine.
A day later, the friend selects Windows to boot into (from grub menu) and gets greeted by a BitLocker message: “Enter bitlocker recovery key” because “Secure boot is disabled”.
Dang. I thought we re-enabled Secure Boot, but apparently not. Go to EFI settings, and turn it back on; save & reboot; select Windows — but BitLocker kept asking for recovery key but with a different reason: “Secure Boot policy has unexpectedly changed”.
That led to scrambling & searching, as BitLocker was not enabled by the user but OEM, and thus there was no recovery key in the user’s Microsoft online account (if the user had enabled it manually, they can find the key there).
The nature of the error message made me conclude that Fedora installation with secure boot disabled has somehow altered the TPM settings and Windows (rightfully) refuses to boot. EFI settings has an option to ‘Restore Factory Keys’ which will reset the secure boot DB. I could try that to remove Fedora keys, pray Windows boots and if it works, recover grub (my specialty) or reinstall Fedora in the worst case scenario.
Enter Matthew Garret. Matthew was instrumental in making GNU/Linux systems to work with Secure Boot (and was awarded the prestigious Free Software Foundation Award). He is a security researcher who frequently writes about computer security.
I have sought Matthew’s advice before trying anything stupid, and he suggested thus (reproduced with permission):
First, how are you attempting to boot Windows? If you’re
doing this via grub then this will result in the secure boot
measurements changing and this error occurring – if you pick Windows
from the firmware boot menu (which I think should appear if you hit F12
on an Ideapad?) then this might solve the problem.
Secondly, if the owner added a Microsoft account when setting up the
Windows system, they can visit
https://account.microsoft.com/devices/recoverykey and a recovery key
should be available there.
If neither of these approaches work, then please try resetting the
factory keys, reset the firmware to its default settings, and delete any
Fedora boot entries from the firmware (you can recover them later), and
with luck that’ll work.
Thankfully, the first option of booting Windows directly via
F12 — without involving grub — works. And the first thing the user does after logging in is back up the recovery keys.